Since 1994 of release
Repair and car operation
+ Cars of mark Skoda Felicia
+ The maintenance instruction
+ Routine maintenance
+ Engine repair
+ Systems of cooling, heating
+ The power supply system
- Engine electric equipment
+ Charge and start systems
- System of ignition of petrol engines
The general information
Diagnostics of malfunctions of system of ignition and check of a condition of its components
Removal and installation of the coil of ignition
Removal and installation of the distributor of ignition
Check and updating of a corner of an advancing of ignition
Removal and installation of information gauges of system of ignition
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System of ignition of petrol engines
The general informationThe scheme of system of ignition with the contactless gauge-distributor
The ignition system is intended for transformation of a current of the low voltage arriving from the storage battery or the generator, to a power-current, and also for giving of it ВВ pressure during the corresponding moments on the spark plugs, setting fire air-fuel a mix in engine cylinders.
On carburettor models of considered cars the system of ignition with the contactless gauge-distributor and the switchboard is used. The scheme of such system of ignition is presented on an illustration.
In НВ a contour of system of ignition the current proceeds through contacts of the switch of ignition to the plug of "15" coils of ignition, and then - from the plug of "1" coils to the switchboard.
In ВВ a contour induced in a secondary winding of the coil of ignition (it is created during the moments of interruption of a current in a primary winding of the coil) the current arrives on the central plug of a cover of the distributor and, further - through бегунок and ВВ wires - on spark plugs.
Bosch Mono-Motronic and Magneti-Marelli 1AV
The structure of both systems includes four spark plugs, five ВВ wires, the ignition distributor, the electronic coil of ignition, the electronic block of management (ECU), and also the complete set of information gauges, actuation mechanisms and connecting electroconducting. Schemes of placing of components of systems are a little various, however by a principle of functioning of system are almost identical.
ECU gives out basic pressure on an entrance step of the coil of ignition, raising a primary winding of the coil. Periodically basic pressure interrupts ECU that conducts to turning of a magnetic field of a primary winding and production ВВ of pressure in the secondary. Further, the high voltage created in the coil through the distributor on ВВ to wires moves on the spark plugs generating a powerful spark on a step of ignition of the piston of each of cylinders. The spark is formed between electrodes of a candle at the moment of giving on it ВВ pressure and provides guaranteed поджиг an air-fuel mix injected into the cylinder. The corner of an advancing of ignition and duration of the closed condition of contacts of the breaker is defined and supervised ECU, proceeding from a control system arriving from gauges of the engine of the information on engine turns, position of a cranked shaft and depth of depression in the inlet pipeline. To number of the other parametres influencing a choice of a corner of an advancing of ignition, position and speed of opening throttle заслонки, temperature of soaked up air and a cooling liquid, and in system Magneti-Marelli, - also a detonation of an air-fuel mix (the information arrives on ECU from corresponding gauges) concern.
The control of a detonation of an air-fuel mix is provided on models 1.6 of the l equipped with system of injection Magneti-Marelli 1AV. The detonation gauge is established on the block of cylinders and on increase of vibrations reveals the moment when ignition becomes too early. In due time having received the information from the gauge, ECU makes ignition delay, preventing occurrences of the sound effects connected with a detonation. Further ECU in some stages returns a corner of an advancing of ignition to normal value. In case of repeated occurrence of a detonation the cycle repeats.
Management of idling turns is carried out partly by means of the electronic module of position throttle заслонки, the case of a throttle established to a wall, and partly - system of ignition by timely updating of a corner of an advancing of ignition. In view of told, necessity for manual adjustment of turns disappears, and possibility of its performance is not provided by a system design.
In some systems ECU it is capable to organise reusable ignition at start of the cold engine. During the moment проворачивания the engine a spark plug starter develop a spark on each step repeatedly that essentially raises efficiency ignition of a mix and facilitates engine start.
It is necessary to notice that diagnostics of malfunctions of system described in the present Chapter is possible only with application of the special electronic equipment. If to reveal a cause of a failure during performance listed in Section Diagnostics of malfunctions of system of ignition and check of a condition of its components of the present Chapter of checks it is not possible, the car should be driven away on a car repair shop. Descriptions of procedures of removal and installation of the failed components are resulted in corresponding Sections of the Head.
In system Simos 2P static ignition (without the distributor) is used. The structure of system of ignition includes two prisoners into casings and the coils of ignition united in the uniform module. The model is established directly over spark plugs that is why any ВВ wires it is not provided.
Each of module coils serves on two cylinders (one - 1st and 4th, the second - 2nd and 3rd).
On given out ECU to coil commands generate in cylinders on two sparks of ignition - one on a step of compression and one on a final step. Pressure of breakdown of a candle on a step of compression as a result of pressure increase appears rather considerable. On a release step when the compression is insignificant, very weak spark which is not rendering any influence on fulfilled gases let out from the cylinder and named single is generated. Such scheme of ignition allows to avoid necessity of installation of the separate coil on each of candles.
ECU operates functioning of system on the basis of signals received from various information gauges. On the basis of the arriving information on temperature of the engine, current loading and turns ECU defines parametres for updating of the moment of ignition and time of a charge of coils. Idling ECU, correcting in appropriate way a corner of an advancing of ignition, changes a twisting moment of the engine for the purpose of maintenance of stability of turns. The system functions in close contact to a potentiometer of position throttle заслонки.
The structure of system of ignition includes also the detonation gauge. Established in a back part of the block of cylinders, the gauge reacts to change of frequency of vibrations of the engine and defines the moment of the beginning of occurrence of a detonation of a mix in cylinders. On the basis of the information received from the gauge, ECU in due time makes step-by-step updating of a corner of an advancing of ignition, preventing the further development of a detonation.